Software and Information Security: Data ProtectionHIGH LEVEL TENDENCIES, WEB DEVELOPMENT.
What is Information Security and Why is it Important?
Information security encompasses all the measures, techniques and actions used to control and maintain data privacy, taking into account that data must not leave an organization's system.
All companies must guarantee the protection of the information they handle in a mandatory and legal way, so the information security systems must guarantee the prevention of any existing risk, be able to face it if necessary, and overcome it with a minimum impact.
Objectives and pillars of information security
Information security can vary according to the characteristics of each institution and the sector to which it is dedicated, however, there are some common objectives, which are included in the ISO 27001 standard for information security, which shows a model for the implementation of technologies for the safeguarding of data.
In this model, three main objectives are mentioned:
Integrity: refers to the fact that information cannot be altered or edited without prior authorization.
Confidentiality: it is the guarantee that only the institution and authorized persons will have access to the information.
Availability: the information must be available at all times to authorized persons, either to manage it or simply to view it.
Challenges facing information security
Any vulnerability can mean financial losses and a blow to the reputation of the business. Information security must face challenges in order to guarantee the protection of all data. These are some of the challenges:
1. Cybercrime: computer attacks are becoming increasingly sophisticated and frequent, and organizations must be prepared to detect and mitigate aggressions.
2. Lack of information security awareness: use of weak passwords or sharing confidential information via email.
3. Constantly changing technology: this means that information security systems must also evolve to adapt to new threats and risks.
4. Regulatory compliance: organizations have to comply with a large number of information security regulations and standards.
5. Massive data management: which makes it difficult to protect and manage them properly.
6. Cloud security: migration to the cloud presents new security challenges that must be properly addressed.
How to Manage Information Security - Protocols and Examples
To effectively manage the information security of a company, it is necessary to use security protocols.
Information security protocols are a set of standards or rules designed to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. They prevent unauthorized persons from accessing, manipulating or even destroying data, as well as preventing any technical accident or human error from having the same consequences.
The following are some examples of computer security protocols:
TCP/IP: the basic Internet protocol, through which two devices can communicate with each other securely.
HTTPS: hypertext transfer protocol "HTTP", designed to transmit messages between the browser and the web server, but with the certificate that encrypts the information to make it secure.
DNS: protocol that translates domain names or URLs into IP addresses to enable access to websites.
It consists of assigning and determining the value of data according to its impact within the institution. This process makes it possible to classify all information according to its value, in such a way that it is possible to manage the protection of such data, identifying the risks of loss or theft of such data, according to their level of importance.
Data loss prevention
This is one of the basic tasks of information security systems, for this purpose, methods or strategies designed to reduce and prevent data loss are applied such as:
Classifying data according to its relevance.
Not collecting unnecessary information.
Employing sound access management practices
Using anomaly detection
Educating and raising employee awareness.
Secure File Transfer (MFT)
System that works with different transfer, auditing and automation protocols, which streamlines file transfer processes while protecting them from any computer attack.
Security process that consists of making information unreadable to prevent it from being stolen or manipulated. The content of the information sent is altered by means of a mathematical algorithm that changes the bits of the data string.
What is Software Security and Why is it Important?
It consists of the implementation of security systems and mechanisms so that the software remains secure against any attack. To achieve this, each piece of software is subjected to different security tests before being released to the market, thus verifying its capacity to receive computer attacks without being breached.
Types of software security
There are several types of software security, some of which are:
Design: involves defining security requirements, identifying potential threats and vulnerabilities, and designing the software so that it is secure and resistant to attack.
Development: this involves following good coding practices, such as avoiding known vulnerabilities, using code analysis tools, and performing security testing.
Deployment: when the software is deployed in the production environment it is important to ensure that it is configured and runs securely. This involves implementing additional security measures such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, proper authentication and authorization.
Maintenance: updates and patches should be performed to correct possible vulnerabilities. It is important to have a well-defined maintenance process to ensure that updates are performed in a timely and secure manner.
Data management: software often handles sensitive data and it is important to ensure that this data is adequately protected. This involves using encryption techniques, ensuring that data is stored securely, and controlling access to data appropriately.
Integration: when integrating software with other systems it is important to ensure that security is not compromised. This involves performing integration tests to ensure that the software works securely with other systems.
Application software security
The following is a description of some aspects that must be considered to ensure effective software security in applications:
1. Applications must have a strong authentication and authorization system to ensure that only authorized users can access system information and functionality. This involves verifying the user's identity and validating that he/she has the appropriate permissions to perform certain actions.
2. They must ensure that the data stored and processed is confidential and not exposed to unauthorized persons. Encryption techniques and data protection methods must be used to prevent data from being stolen or compromised.
3. They must be designed and developed to resist cyber attacks, such as code injection, cross-site scripting (XSS) and cross-site request forgery (CSRF). Developers should follow good coding practices such as avoiding the inclusion of unvalidated code, properly escaping characters and validating data input.
4. They should be subjected to regular security testing to identify potential vulnerabilities and ensure that steps are taken to correct them. It is important to test both during the development process and in the production environment to ensure that the software is secure at all stages.
5. They should be updated and patched regularly to correct vulnerabilities and keep the software secure. It is important to have a well-defined and timely update and patching process to minimize the risk of attacks.
6. They should be subjected to periodic security audits to assess their security and identify potential security gaps. These audits can be performed internally or by third parties specialized in security.
Main threats in software security
There are many software security threats, some of which are:
1. Injection attacks: exploit vulnerabilities in data entry to insert malicious code into software. The most common injection attacks include SQL injection and command injection.
2. Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks: seek to overwhelm software with a large number of requests to disrupt or cause the system to fail.
3. Brute-force attacks: attempt to guess passwords or keys by generating multiple combinations until the correct one is found.
4. Phishing attacks: use spoofed emails or websites to trick users into divulging sensitive information such as passwords or banking information.
5. Malware: malicious software that is installed on the system to perform malicious activities, such as collecting sensitive information or creating backdoors to facilitate future attacks.
6. Ransomware attacks: encrypt user data and demand a ransom to decrypt it.
7. Social engineering: based on tricking users into divulging confidential information. For example, an attacker can impersonate a company employee and request confidential information via telephone or email.
8. Software vulnerabilities: errors that can be exploited to compromise system security. For example, errors in data entry validation can allow attackers to execute malicious code.
How to Manage Software Security Protocols
Some examples of software security protocols include:
1. ISO/IEC 27001: international standard for information security management that defines a framework for establishing, implementing, maintaining and improving an information security management system (ISMS).
2. OWASP Top 10: list of the top ten web security vulnerabilities identified by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP). It includes vulnerabilities such as SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS) and weak authentication and authorization.
3. NIST Cybersecurity Framework: Framework developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to help organizations manage and reduce cyber risk. It includes five main functions: identification, protection, detection, response and recovery.
Cloud Software Security
The following describes some important considerations for ensuring the security of software in the cloud:
1. Strong authentication and authorization to control access to cloud resources. This may include the use of strong passwords, multi-factor authentication and role-based access control.
2. Data encryption to protect sensitive information stored in the cloud, both in transit and at rest.
3. Threat monitoring and detection to quickly identify and respond to potential attacks. This may include the implementation of intrusion detection solutions, log analysis and user behavior analysis.
4. Security patch management to ensure that potential vulnerabilities are corrected.
5. Data backup and recovery to perform regular backups of data stored in the cloud and have disaster recovery plans in place to ensure that data can be recovered in the event of a service interruption.
6. Evaluating cloud providers and their security policies. This may include reviewing service level agreements (SLAs) and security certifications.
7. Clear and consistent security policies for the use of cloud services and information security management. This may include cloud security policies, BYOD (bring your own device) policies, and remote access policies.
Aplyca and Cybersecurity
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